Well, I guess it mostly depends on what Mark you are considering.
To do Khorne, you'd be crazy to go with Bolters.
To do Slaanesh, you'd be slightly less crazy, as Sonic Blasters are more productive.
To do Tzeentch you don't have too much choice in the matter. They all carry bolters.
That leaves Undivided/Unmarked and Nurgle, which are both pretty much the same IMO.
To start, you want a special weapon that complements the bolter. The Plasma Gun does this nicely, as it shares the exact same profile as the Bolter but with better strength and AP value. Two Plasma Guns in a squad is a very nice thing to have. Melta guns are also quite nice, though not quite as suited to the bolter as the Plasma Gun. The assault profile of the Melta Gun is wasted, and the range forces you to approach counter-assault range. Flamers are not so great, due to the very short range. I do not believe that any Heavy Weapon (Autocannons, Lascannons, or Missile Launchers) save the Heavy Bolter should be combined with Bolters. The Heavy Bolter works since they tend to target the same units, but every other Heavy Weapon tends to target units that the Bolters aren't so hot against.
Next, you look at the squad size. This is usually dependant upon your mark, but Undivided/Unmarked squads have quite a bit of variety. However, you'll find that between eight and ten men is the perfect amount. Anything larger and you start growing unwieldly, anything smaller and they're easily ignored or wiped out. Ten men works nicely if you have a Rhino, while eight men works nicely if you Infiltrate.
Lastly comes the Champion. In a Bolter unit, you might be able to get away without having a Champion as they want to avoid Close Combat. However, it is nice to have one in the unit with a Powerweapon of some sort as a "Just in case" measure. Powerfists are also very nice to have.
So, in summary, assuming a Undivided/Unmarked squad, my ideal CSM squad (if forced to use Bolters) would be -
I have to agree with the best being plague marines.
Having the extra toughness, fearless and true grit makes them difficult to take down without specialized troops.
Rubric marines are a close second though. But i feel there are too many disadvantages to make up for the extra wound. And since you are going for a straight bolter squad, I dont see you paying for a high priced asp champ with psychic powers.
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